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Review: Opportunities and barriers for omics-based biomarker discovery in steatotic liver diseases

Item Type:Review
Title:Review: Opportunities and barriers for omics-based biomarker discovery in steatotic liver diseases
Creators Name:Thiele, M. and Villesen, I.. and Niu, L. and Johansen, S. and Sulek, K. and Nishijima, S. and Van Espen, L. and Keller, M. and Israelsen, M. and Suvitaival, T. and de Zawadzki, A. and Juel, H.B. and Brol, M.J. and Stinson, S.E. and Huang, Y. and Alvarez Silva, M.C. and Kuhn, M. and Anastasiadou, E. and Leeming, D.J. and Karsdal, M. and Matthijnssens, J. and Arumugam, M. and Dalgaard, L.T. and Legido-Quigley, C. and Mann, M. and Trebicka, J. and Bork, P. and Jensen, L.J. and Hansen, T. and Krag, A.
Abstract:The rising prevalence of liver diseases related to obesity and excessive use of alcohol is fuelling an increasing demand for accurate biomarkers aimed at community screening, diagnosis of steatohepatitis and significant fibrosis, monitoring, prognosis and prediction of treatment efficacy. Breakthroughs in omics methodologies and the power of bioinformatics have created an excellent opportunity to combine clinical needs with technological advancements. Omics technologies allow for advanced investigations into biological processes from the genes to transcription and regulation, to circulating protein, metabolite and lipid levels, as well as the microbiome including bacteria, viruses and fungi. We consequently find ourselves in a period of rapid progress in technology and bioinformatics that may allow for development of precision biomarkers for personalised medicine. However, there are important barriers to consider in omics biomarker discovery and validation, including the use of semi-quantitative measurements from untargeted platforms, which may exhibit high analytical, inter- and intra-individual variance. Standardising methods and the need to validate across diverse populations, presents a challenge, partly due to disease complexity and the dynamic nature of biomarker expression in different disease stages. Lack of validity causes lost opportunities when studies fail to provide the knowledge needed for regulatory approvals, all of which contributes to a delayed translation of these discoveries into clinical practice. While no omics-based biomarkers have matured to clinical implementation, the extent of data generated through omics-technologies holds the power of hypothesis-free discovery of a plethora of candidate biomarkers to be further validated. To explore the many opportunities of omics technologies, hepatologists need detailed knowledge of commonalities and differences between the various omics layers, and both the barriers to and advantages of these approaches.
Keywords:Non-Invasive Test, Genetics, Microbiome, Metagenomics, Metatranscriptomics, Viromics, Metabolomics, Lipidomics, Proteomics
Source:Journal of Hepatology
Date:28 March 2024
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2024.03.035
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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