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Specification and differentiation of serotonergic neurons

Item Type:Article
Title:Specification and differentiation of serotonergic neurons
Creators Name:Alenina, N., Bashammakh, S. and Bader, M.
Abstract:Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter with multiple functions in the whole central nervous system. Its synthesis, however, is restricted to a very limited number of cells in the brainstem raphe nuclei with a vast axonal network. These cells express markers of the serotonin lineage such as the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase 2, the serotonin transporter, and the transcription factor Pet1. Pet1 together with Lmx1b, Nkx2.2, Mash1, Gata2, Gata3, and Phox2b form a transcriptional network, which specifies the differentiation of serotonergic neurons around embryonic day 11 in the mouse. These cells are generated in rhombomeres r1–r3 and r5–r7 caudal to the midbrain– hindbrain organizer under the control of the fibroblast growth factors 4 and 8 and sonic hedgehog (SHH) from precursors, which have produced motoneurons before. Because serotonin is a relevant pathophysiological factor in several neurological diseases such as bipolar disorder and depression tools to generate or maintain serotonergic neurons might be of therapeutic value. Such tools can be assessed in embryonic stem cells, which can be differentiated in vitro to produce serotonergic neurons. Culture systems for these cells including embryoid bodies based and monolayer differentiation have been established, which allows the generation of up to 50% serotonergic neurons in all neurons developed.
Keywords:Serotonin, Raphe Nuclei, Development, Embryonic Stem Cells, Neurogenesis, Embryoid Body, Animals, Mice
Source:Stem Cell Reviews
Publisher:Humana Press
Page Range:5-10
Date:March 2006
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1007/s12015-006-0002-2
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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