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Deep sequencing of the trypanosoma cruzi GP63 surface proteases reveals diversity and diversifying selection among chronic and congenital Chagas disease patients

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Item Type:Article
Title:Deep sequencing of the trypanosoma cruzi GP63 surface proteases reveals diversity and diversifying selection among chronic and congenital Chagas disease patients
Creators Name:Llewellyn, M.S., Messenger, L.A., Luquetti, A.O., Garcia, L., Torrico, F., Tavares, S.B.N., Cheaib, B., Derome, N., Delepine, M., Baulard, C., Deleuze, J.F., Sauer, S. and Miles, M.A.
Abstract:Bakcground: Chagas disease results from infection with the diploid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. T. cruzi is highly genetically diverse, and multiclonal infections in individual hosts are common, but little studied. In this study, we explore T. cruzi infection multiclonality in the context of age, sex and clinical profile among a cohort of chronic patients, as well as paired congenital cases from Cochabamba, Bolivia and Goias, Brazil using amplicon deep sequencing technology. Methodology/ Principal Findings: A 450bp fragment of the trypomastigote TcGP63I surface protease gene was amplified and sequenced across 70 chronic and 22 congenital cases on the Illumina MiSeq platform. In addition, a second, mitochondrial target--ND5--was sequenced across the same cohort of cases. Several million reads were generated, and sequencing read depths were normalized within patient cohorts (Goias chronic, n = 43, Goias congenital n = 2, Bolivia chronic, n = 27; Bolivia congenital, n = 20), Among chronic cases, analyses of variance indicated no clear correlation between intra-host sequence diversity and age, sex or symptoms, while principal coordinate analyses showed no clustering by symptoms between patients. Between congenital pairs, we found evidence for the transmission of multiple sequence types from mother to infant, as well as widespread instances of novel genotypes in infants. Finally, non-synonymous to synonymous (dn:ds) nucleotide substitution ratios among sequences of TcGP63Ia and TcGP63Ib subfamilies within each cohort provided powerful evidence of strong diversifying selection at this locus. Conclusions/Significance: Our results shed light on the diversity of parasite DTUs within each patient, as well as the extent to which parasite strains pass between mother and foetus in congenital cases. Although we were unable to find any evidence that parasite diversity accumulates with age in our study cohorts, putative diversifying selection within members of the TcGP63I gene family suggests a link between genetic diversity within this gene family and survival in the mammalian host.
Keywords:Bolivia, Brazil, Chagas Disease, Chronic Disease, Cohort Studies, Gene Expression Regulation, Genetic Variation, Genotype, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical, Peptide Hydrolases, Protozoan Proteins, Trypanosoma cruzi, Animals
Source:PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Publisher:Public Library of Science
Page Range:e0003458
Date:7 April 2015
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003458
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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