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Binding sites in membrane proteins: diversity, druggability and prospects

Item Type:Review
Title:Binding sites in membrane proteins: diversity, druggability and prospects
Creators Name:Adams, R., Worth, C.L., Guenther, S., Dunkel, M., Lehmann, R. and Preissner, R.
Abstract:The identification of novel drug targets is one of the major challenges in proteomics. Computational methods developed over the last decade have enhanced the process of drug design in both terms of time and quality. The main task is the design of selective compounds, which bind targets more specifically, dependent on the desired mode of action of the particular drug. This makes it necessary to create compounds, which either exhibit their functions on one single protein to exclude undesired cross-reactivity or to use the advantageous effect of less selective drugs that target numerous proteins and therefore exhibit their functions on whole protein classes. Main aspects in the assignment of interactions between ligands and putative targets involve the amino acid composition of the binding site, evolutionary conservation and similarity in sequence and structure of known targets. Similarities or differences within classified protein families can be the key to their function and give first hints to functional drug design. Hereby, binding site-based classification outnumbers sequence-based classifications since similar binding sites can also be found in more distant proteins. Membrane proteins are 'difficult targets', because of their special physicochemical characteristics and the general lack of structural information. Here, we describe recent advances in modeling methods dedicated to membrane proteins. Different descriptors of similarity between compounds and the similarity between binding sites are under development and elucidate important aspects like dynamics or entropy. The importance of computational drug design is undisputable. Nevertheless, the process of design is complicated by increasing complexity, which underlines the importance of accurate knowledge about the addressed target class(es) and particularly their binding sites. One main objective by considering named topics is to predict putative side effects and errant functions (off-target effects) of novel drugs, which requires a holistic (systems biology) view on drug-target-pathway relations. In the following, we give a brief summary about the recent discussion on drug-target interactions with emphasis on membrane proteins.
Keywords:Off-Target, Side Effects, Drug Target Prediction, Binding Site, Drug Binding Site, Allosteric Binding, Drug Failure, Drug Development, Binding Pocket
Source:European Journal of Cell Biology
Page Range:326-339
Date:April 2012
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcb.2011.06.003
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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