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B-mode ultrasound assessment of pupillary function: feasibility, reliability and normal values

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Item Type:Article
Title:B-mode ultrasound assessment of pupillary function: feasibility, reliability and normal values
Creators Name:Schmidt, F., Ruprecht, K., Connolly, F., Maas, M.B., Paul, F., Hoffmann, J., Harms, L. and Schreiber, S.J.
Abstract:PURPOSE: To evaluate B-mode ultrasound as a novel method for the examination of pupillary function and to provide normal values for the pupillary reflex as assessed by B-mode ultrasound. METHODS: 100 subjects (49 female, 51 male, mean [range] age 51 [18-80 years]) with no history of ophthalmologic disease, no clinically detectable pupillary defects, and corrected visual acuity >= 0.8 were included in this prospective observational study. B-mode ultrasound was performed with the subjects eyes closed using an Esaote-Mylab25 system according to current guidelines for orbital insonation. A standardized light stimulus was applied. RESULTS: The mean +/- standard deviation left and right pupillary diameters (PD) at rest were 4.7 +/- 0.8 and 4.5 +/- 0.8 mm. Following an ipsilateral light stimulus (Lstim), left and right constricted PD were 2.8 +/- 0.6 and 2.7 +/- 0.6 mm. Following a contralateral Lstim, left and right constricted PD were 2.7 +/- 0.6 and 2.6 +/- 0.5 mm. Left and right pupillary constriction time (PCT) following ipsilateral Lstim were 970 +/- 261.6 and 967 +/- 220 ms. Left and right PCT following a contralateral Lstim were 993.8 +/- 192.6 and 963 +/- 189.4 ms. Patient age was inversely correlated with PD at rest and with PD after ipsilateral and contralateral Lstim (all p<0.001), but not with PCT. CONCLUSIONS: B-mode ultrasound is a simple, rapid and objective method for the quantitative assessment of pupillary function, which may prove useful in a variety of settings where eyelid retraction is impeded or an infrared pupillometry device is unavailable.
Keywords:Feasibility Studies, Photic Stimulation, Pupil, Reproducibility of Results, Ultrasonography
Source:PLoS ONE
Publisher:Public Library of Science
Page Range:e0189016
Date:6 December 2017
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189016
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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