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Mas and its related G protein-coupled receptors, Mrgprs

Item Type:Review
Title:Mas and its related G protein-coupled receptors, Mrgprs
Creators Name:Bader, M., Alenina, N., Andrade-Navarro, M.A. and Santos, R.A.
Abstract:The Mas-related G protein-coupled receptors (Mrgprs or Mas-related genes) comprise a subfamily of receptors named after the first discovered member, Mas. For most Mrgprs, pruriception seems to be the major function based on the following observations: 1) they are relatively promiscuous in their ligand specificity with best affinities for itch-inducing substances; 2) they are expressed in sensory neurons and mast cells in the skin, the main cellular components of pruriception; and 3) they appear in evolution first in tetrapods, which have arms and legs necessary for scratching to remove parasites or other noxious substances from the skin before they create harm. Because parasites coevolved with hosts, each species faced different parasitic challenges, which may explain another striking observation, the multiple independent duplication and expansion events of Mrgpr genes in different species as a consequence of parallel adaptive evolution. Their predominant expression in dorsal root ganglia anticipates additional functions of Mrgprs in nociception. Some Mrgprs have endogenous ligands, such as {beta}-alanine, alamandine, adenine, RF-amide peptides, or salusin-{beta}. However, because the functions of these agonists are still elusive, the physiologic role of the respective Mrgprs needs to be clarified. The best studied Mrgpr is Mas itself. It was shown to be a receptor for angiotensin-1-7 and to exert mainly protective actions in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge about Mrgprs, their evolution, their ligands, their possible physiologic functions, and their therapeutic potential.
Keywords:Angiotensin I, G-Protein-Coupled Receptors, Ligands, Mast Cells, Peptide Fragments, Proto-Oncogene Proteins, Sensory Receptor Cells, Species Specificity, Spinal Ganglia, Animals, Mice, Rats
Source:Pharmacological Reviews
Publisher:American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Page Range:1080-1105
Date:October 2014
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1124/pr.113.008136
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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