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Statins aggravate the risk of insulin resistance in human muscle

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Item Type:Article
Title:Statins aggravate the risk of insulin resistance in human muscle
Creators Name:Grunwald, S.A. and Haafke, S. and Grieben, U. and Kassner, U. and Steinhagen-Thiessen, E. and Spuler, S.
Abstract:Beside their beneficial effects on cardiovascular events, statins are thought to contribute to insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. It is not known whether these effects are long-term events from statin-treatment or already triggered with the first statin-intake. Skeletal muscle is considered the main site for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and therefore, a primary target for insulin resistance in the human body. We analyzed localization and expression of proteins related to GLUT4 mediated glucose uptake via AMPKα or AKT in human skeletal muscle tissue from patients with statin-intake >6 months and in primary human myotubes after 96 h statin treatment. The ratio for AMPKα activity significantly increased in human skeletal muscle cells treated with statins for long- and short-term. Furthermore, the insulin-stimulated counterpart, AKT, significantly decreased in activity and protein level, while GSK3ß and mTOR protein expression reduced in statin-treated primary human myotubes, only. However, GLUT4 was normally distributed whereas CAV3 was internalized from plasma membrane around the nucleus in statin-treated primary human myotubes. Statin-treatment activates AMPKα-dependent glucose uptake and remains active after long-term statin treatment. Permanent blocking of its insulin-dependent counterpart AKT activation may lead to metabolic inflexibility and insulin resistance in the long run and may be a direct consequence of statin-treatment.
Keywords:Statins, Insulin Resistance, AMPK, AKT, Human Skeletal Muscle, Primary Human Muscle Cells
Source:International Journal of Molecular Sciences
ISSN:1422-0067
Publisher:MDPI
Volume:23
Number:4
Page Range:2398
Date:21 February 2022
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23042398
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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