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Staging und neoadjuvante Therapie des Plattenepithelkarzinoms des Oesophagus [Staging and neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer]

Item Type:Article
Title:Staging und neoadjuvante Therapie des Plattenepithelkarzinoms des Oesophagus [Staging and neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal cancer]
Creators Name:Benhidjeb, T. and Moesta, K.T. and Schlag, P.M.
Abstract:Once the diagnosis of esophageal cancer is established, the decision on treatment will depend on the stage of the disease. Since improvement of prognosis can only be expected in patients with complete removal of their tumor, preoperative staging plays a pivotal role in the decision-making process. Preoperative diagnostic procedures should define the tumor in its relation to the tracheal bifurcation (site), determine the depth of tumor invasion (T status), evaluate regional lymph node metastases (N1 disease) and exclude distant metastases (M1 disease). Endosonography represents currently the most accurate imaging technique for detecting the correct T stage over the correct N stage. A higher accuracy rate may be achieved by combining endosonography with other staging modalities such as computed tomography. Chest x-ray, and percutaneous ultrasonography (abdominal, neck) form the diagnostic basis in staging M1 disease. Computed tomography (neck, chest and abdomen) is currently the best method to detect metastases in the liver and in celiac nodes. Staging laparoscopy when combined with laparoscopic ultrasonography shows a higher sensitivity than ultrasonography and computed tomography in the diagnosis of smaller metastases and peritoneal seedings. En bloc esophagectomy together with the regional lymph nodes remains the treatment of choice in medically fit patients with localized esophageal carcinoma (Stage I-IIB, T1-T2/N0-N1/M0). Due to early involvement of mediastinal structures, curative resection is unlikely to be achieved in patients with locally advanced esophageal carcinoma (Stage III, T3-T4/N0-N1/M0). Most available data indicate that neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy leads in a significant number of patients to downstaging of the tumor, increases the rate of R0 resection, improves local tumor control, and prolongs the recurrence free interval. However, neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy resulted in a marked increase of morbidity and postoperative mortality without improvement of survival. At present, neoadjuvant therapy is still experimental and there is no consensus for an optimal treatment regimen. Its use outside of an investigational setting can not be recommended. Future research must focus on more effective and less toxic neoadjuvant modalities (e.g. new chemotherapy agents, hyperthermia).
Keywords:Combined Modality Therapy, Esophageal Neoplasms, Neoadjuvant Therapy, Neoplasm Seeding, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Source:Therapeutische Umschau
Page Range:165-173
Date:March 2001
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1024/0040-5930.58.3.165
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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