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The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

Item Type:Article
Title:The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae
Creators Name:Holt, R.A. and Subramanian, G.M. and Halpern, A. and Sutton, G.G. and Charlab, R. and Nusskern, D.R. and Wincker, P. and Clark, A.G. and Ribeiro, J.M.C. and Wides, R. and Salzberg, S.L. and Loftus, B. and Yandell, M. and Majoros, W.H. and Rusch, D.B. and Lai, Z.W. and Kraft, C.L. and Abril, J.F. and Anthouard, V. and Arensburger, P. and Atkinson, P.W. and Baden, H. and de Berardinis, V. and Baldwin, D. and Benes, V. and Biedler, J. and Blass, C. and Bolanos, R. and Boscus, D. and Barnstead, M. and Cai, S. and Center, A. and Chatuverdi, K. and Christophides, G.K. and Chrystal, M.A. and Clamp, M. and Cravchik, A. and Curwen, V. and Dana, A. and Delcher, A. and Dew, I. and Evans, C.A. and Flanigan, M. and Grundschober-Freimoser, A. and Friedli, L. and Gu, Z.P. and Guan, P. and Guigo, R. and Hillenmeyer, M.E. and Hladun, S.L. and Hogan, J.R. and Hong, Y.S. and Hoover, J. and Jaillon, O. and Ke, Z.X. and Kodira, C. and Kokoza, E. and Koutsos, A. and Letunic, I. and Levitsky, A. and Liang, Y. and Lin, J.J. and Lobo, N.F. and Lopez, J.R. and Malek, J.A. and McIntosh, T.C. and Meister, S. and Miller, J. and Mobarry, C. and Mongin, E. and Murphy, S.D. and O'Brochta, D.A. and Pfannkoch, C. and Qi, R. and Regier, M.A. and Remington, K. and Shao, H.G. and Sharakhova, M.V. and Sitter, C.D. and Shetty, J. and Smith, T.J. and Strong, R. and Sun, J.T. and Thomasova, D. and Ton, L.Q. and Topalis, P. and Tu, Z.J. and Unger, M.F. and Walenz, B. and Wang, A.H. and Wang, J. and Wang, M. and Wang, X.L. and Woodford, K.J. and Wortman, J.R. and Wu, M. and Yao, A. and Zdobnov, E.M. and Zhang, H.Y. and Zhao, Q. and Zhao, S.Y. and Zhu, S.P.C. and Zhimulev, I. and Coluzzi, M. and della Torre, A. and Roth, C.W. and Louis, C. and Kalush, F. and Mural, R.J. and Myers, E.W. and Adams, M.D. and Smith, H.O. and Broder, S. and Gardner, M.J. and Fraser, C.M. and Birney, E. and Bork, P. and Brey, P.T. and Venter, J.C. and Weissenbach, J. and Kafatos, F.C. and Collins, F.H. and Hoffman, S.L.
Abstract:Anopheles gambiae is the principal vector of malaria, a disease that afflicts more than 500 million people and causes more than 1 million deaths each year. Tenfold shotgun sequence coverage was obtained from the PEST strain of A. gambiae and assembled into scaffolds that span 278 million base pairs. A total of 91% of the genome was organized in 303 scaffolds; the largest scaffold was 23.1 million base pairs. There was substantial genetic variation within this strain, and the apparent existence of two haplotypes of approximately equal frequency ("dual haplotypes") in a substantial fraction of the genome likely reflects the outbred nature of the PEST strain. The sequence produced a conservative inference of more than 400,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms that showed a markedly bimodal density distribution. Analysis of the genome sequence revealed strong evidence for about 14,000 protein-encoding transcripts. Prominent expansions in specific families of proteins likely involved in cell adhesion and immunity were noted. An expressed sequence tag analysis of genes regulated by blood feeding provided insights into the physiological adaptations of a hematophagous insect.
Keywords:Anopheles, Blood, Chromosome Inversion, Artificial Bacterial Chromosomes, Computational Biology, DNA Transposable Elements, Digestion, Enzymes, Evolution, Expressed Sequence Tags, Feeding Behavior, Gene Expression Regulation, Insect Genes, Genetic Variation, Genome, Haplotypes, Insect Proteins, Falciparum Malaria, Molecular Sequence Data, Mosquito Control, Physical Chromosome Mapping, Plasmodium Falciparum, Single Nucleotide Polymorphism, Proteome, DNA Sequence Analysis, Species Specificity, Transcription Factors, Animals, Drosophila melanogaster
Publisher:American Association for the Advancement of Science
Page Range:129-149
Date:4 October 2002
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1076181
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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