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Endothelial dysfunction and salt-sensitive hypertension in spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats

Item Type:Article
Title:Endothelial dysfunction and salt-sensitive hypertension in spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats
Creators Name:Cheng, Z.J. and Vaskonen, T. and Tikkanen, I. and Nurminen, K. and Ruskoaho, H. and Vapaatalo, H. and Muller, D. and Park, J.K. and Luft, F.C. and Mervaala, E.M.A.
Abstract:Endothelial dysfunction is associated with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and heart failure. We tested the hypothesis that spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a model for type 2 diabetes, exhibit endothelial dysfunction. Rats also received a high-sodium diet (6% NaCl [wt/wt]) and chronic angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor blockade (10 mg/kg PO valsartan for 8 weeks). Compared with age-matched nondiabetic Wistar control rats, GK rats had higher blood glucose levels (9.3±0.5 versus 6.9±0.2 mmol/L for control rats), 2.7-fold higher serum insulin levels, and impaired glucose tolerance (all P<0.05). Telemetry-measured mean blood pressure was 15 mm Hg higher in GK rats (P<0.01) compared with control rats, whereas heart rates were not different. Heart weight– and kidney weight–to–body weight ratios were higher in GK rats (P<0.05), and 24-hour albuminuria was increased 50%. Endothelium-mediated relaxation of noradrenaline-precontracted mesenteric arterial rings by acetylcholine was impaired compared with the control condition (P<0.05), whereas the sodium nitroprusside–induced relaxation was similar. Preincubation of the arterial rings with the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor diclofenac inhibited relaxations to acetylcholine almost completely in GK rats but not in Wistar rats, suggesting that endothelial dysfunction can be in part attributed to reduced relaxation via arterial K+ channels. Perivascular monocyte/macrophage infiltration and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 overexpression were observed in GK rat kidneys. A high-sodium diet increased blood pressure by 24 mm Hg and 24-hour albuminuria by 350%, induced cardiac hypertrophy, impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation further, and aggravated inflammation (all P<0.05). The serum level of 8-isoprostaglandin F2α, a vasoconstrictor and antinatriuretic arachidonic acid metabolite produced by oxidative stress, was increased 400% in GK rats on a high-sodium diet. Valsartan decreased blood pressure in rats fed a low-sodium diet and prevented the inflammatory response. In rats fed a high-sodium diet, valsartan did not decrease blood pressure or improve endothelial dysfunction but protected against albuminuria, inflammation, and oxidative stress. As measured by quantitative autoradiography, AT1 receptor expression in the medulla was decreased in GK compared with Wistar rats, whereas cortical AT1 receptor expression, medullary and cortical angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor expressions, and adrenal ACE and neutral endopeptidase expressions were unchanged. A high-sodium diet did not influence renal AT1, AT2, ACE, or neutral endopeptidase expressions. In valsartan-treated GK rats, the cortical and medullary AT1 receptor expressions were decreased in the presence and absence of a high-sodium diet. A high-sodium diet increased plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentrations in presence and absence of valsartan treatment. We conclude that hypertension in GK rats is salt sensitive and associated with endothelial dysfunction and perivascular inflammation. AT1 receptor blockade ameliorates inflammation during a low-sodium diet and partially protects against salt-induced vascular damage by blood pressure–independent mechanisms.
Publisher:American Heart Association
Page Range:433-439
Date:1 January 2001
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.37.2.433
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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