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Dietary protein and blood pressure: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and evaluation of the evidence

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Item Type:Review
Title:Dietary protein and blood pressure: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and evaluation of the evidence
Creators Name:Boeing, H. and Amini, A.M. and Haardt, J. and Schmidt, A. and Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A. and Buyken, A.E. and Egert, S. and Ellinger, S. and Kroke, A. and Lorkowski, S. and Louis, S. and Nimptsch, K. and Schulze, M.B. and Schutkowski, A. and Schwingshackl, L. and Siener, R. and Zittermann, A. and Watzl, B. and Stangl, G.I.
Abstract:INTRODUCTION: This umbrella review aimed to investigate the evidence of an effect of dietary intake of total protein, animal and plant protein on blood pressure (BP), and hypertension (PROSPERO: CRD42018082395). METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Database were systematically searched for systematic reviews (SRs) of prospective studies with or without meta-analysis published between 05/2007 and 10/2022. The methodological quality and outcome-specific certainty of evidence were assessed by the AMSTAR 2 and NutriGrade tools, followed by an assessment of the overall certainty of evidence. SRs investigating specific protein sources are described in this review, but not included in the assessment of the overall certainty of evidence. RESULTS: Sixteen SRs were considered eligible for the umbrella review. Ten of the SRs investigated total protein intake, six animal protein, six plant protein and four animal vs. plant protein. The majority of the SRs reported no associations or effects of total, animal and plant protein on BP (all "possible" evidence), whereby the uncertainty regarding the effects on BP was particularly high for plant protein. Two SRs addressing milk-derived protein showed a reduction in BP; in contrast, SRs investigating soy protein found no effect on BP. The outcome-specific certainty of evidence of the SRs was mostly rated as low. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: This umbrella review showed uncertainties whether there are any effects on BP from the intake of total protein, or animal or plant proteins, specifically. Based on data from two SRs with milk protein, it cannot be excluded that certain types of protein could favourably influence BP.
Keywords:Dietary Protein, Blood Pressure, Hypertension, Umbrella Review, Grading of Evidence, Meta-Analyses
Source:European Journal of Nutrition
Date:20 February 2024
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-024-03336-8
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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