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Alternative renin-angiotensin system

Item Type:Review
Title:Alternative renin-angiotensin system
Creators Name:Bader, M. and Muscha Steckelings, U. and Alenina, N. and Santos, R.A.S. and Ferrario, C.M.
Abstract:The renin-angiotensin system is the most important peptide hormone system in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Its classical arm consists of the enzymes, renin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme, generating angiotensin II from angiotensinogen, which activates its AT(1) receptor, thereby increasing blood pressure, retaining salt and water, and inducing cardiovascular hypertrophy and fibrosis. However, angiotensin II can also activate a second receptor, the AT(2) receptor. Moreover, the removal of the C-terminal phenylalanine from angiotensin II by ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) yields angiotensin-(1-7), and this peptide interacts with its receptor Mas. When the aminoterminal Asp of angiotensin-(1-7) is decarboxylated, alamandine is generated, which activates the Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor D, MrgD (Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor type D). Since Mas, MrgD, and the AT(2) receptor have opposing effects to the classical AT(1) receptor, they and the enzymes and peptides activating them are called the alternative or protective arm of the renin-angiotensin system. This review will cover the historical aspects and the current standing of this recent addition to the biology of the renin-angiotensin system.
Keywords:Alamandine, AT2 Receptor, Cancer, Heart Failure, Homeostasis
Publisher:American Heart Association
Page Range:964-976.
Date:May 2024
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.123.21364
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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