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Gastric stem cell biology and helicobacter pylori infection

Item Type:Article
Title:Gastric stem cell biology and helicobacter pylori infection
Creators Name:Wizenty, J. and Sigal, M.
Abstract:Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human gastric mucosa and persists lifelong. An interactive network between the bacteria and host cells shapes a unique microbial niche within gastric glands that alters epithelial behavior, leading to pathologies such as chronic gastritis and eventually gastric cancer. Gland colonization by the bacterium initiates aberrant trajectories by inducing long-term inflammatory and regenerative gland responses, which involve various specialized epithelial and stromal cells. Recent studies using cell lineage tracing, organoids and scRNA-seq techniques have significantly advanced our knowledge of the molecular "identity" of epithelial and stromal cell subtypes during normal homeostasis and upon infection, and revealed the principles that underly stem cell (niche) behavior under homeostatic conditions as well as upon H. pylori infection. The activation of long-lived stem cells deep in the gastric glands has emerged as a key prerequisite of H. pylori-associated gastric site-specific pathologies such as hyperplasia in the antrum, and atrophy or metaplasia in the corpus, that are considered premalignant lesions. In addition to altering the behaviour of bona fide stem cells, injury-driven de-differentiation and trans-differentation programs, such as "paligenosis", subsequently allow highly specialized secretory cells to re-acquire stem cell functions, driving gland regeneration. This plastic regenerative capacity of gastric glands is required to maintain homeostasis and repair mucosal injuries. However, these processes are co-opted in the context of stepwise malignant transformation in chronic H. pylori infection, causing the emergence, selection and expansion of cancer-promoting stem cells.
Keywords:Gastric cancer, Regeneration, Wnt, Rspo, NF-κB
Source:Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Series Name:Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Title of Book:Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer
Page Range:1-24
Date:18 January 2024
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-47331-9_1
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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