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Multilevel comparison of deep learning models for function quantification in cardiovascular magnetic resonance: on the redundancy of architectural variations

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Item Type:Article
Title:Multilevel comparison of deep learning models for function quantification in cardiovascular magnetic resonance: on the redundancy of architectural variations
Creators Name:Ammann, C. and Hadler, T. and Gröschel, J. and Kolbitsch, C. and Schulz-Menger, J.
Abstract:BACKGROUND: Cardiac function quantification in cardiovascular magnetic resonance requires precise contouring of the heart chambers. This time-consuming task is increasingly being addressed by a plethora of ever more complex deep learning methods. However, only a small fraction of these have made their way from academia into clinical practice. In the quality assessment and control of medical artificial intelligence, the opaque reasoning and associated distinctive errors of neural networks meet an extraordinarily low tolerance for failure. AIM: The aim of this study is a multilevel analysis and comparison of the performance of three popular convolutional neural network (CNN) models for cardiac function quantification. METHODS: U-Net, FCN, and MultiResUNet were trained for the segmentation of the left and right ventricles on short-axis cine images of 119 patients from clinical routine. The training pipeline and hyperparameters were kept constant to isolate the influence of network architecture. CNN performance was evaluated against expert segmentations for 29 test cases on contour level and in terms of quantitative clinical parameters. Multilevel analysis included breakdown of results by slice position, as well as visualization of segmentation deviations and linkage of volume differences to segmentation metrics via correlation plots for qualitative analysis. RESULTS: All models showed strong correlation to the expert with respect to quantitative clinical parameters (rz′ = 0.978, 0.977, 0.978 for U-Net, FCN, MultiResUNet respectively). The MultiResUNet significantly underestimated ventricular volumes and left ventricular myocardial mass. Segmentation difficulties and failures clustered in basal and apical slices for all CNNs, with the largest volume differences in the basal slices (mean absolute error per slice: 4.2 ± 4.5 ml for basal, 0.9 ± 1.3 ml for midventricular, 0.9 ± 0.9 ml for apical slices). Results for the right ventricle had higher variance and more outliers compared to the left ventricle. Intraclass correlation for clinical parameters was excellent (≥0.91) among the CNNs. CONCLUSION: Modifications to CNN architecture were not critical to the quality of error for our dataset. Despite good overall agreement with the expert, errors accumulated in basal and apical slices for all models.
Keywords:Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, MRI, Artificial Intelligence, Deep Learning, Cardiac Image Segmentation, Cardiac Function Quantification, Quality Control
Source:Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Publisher:Frontiers Media SA
Page Range:1118499
Date:18 April 2023
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2023.1118499
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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