Helmholtz Gemeinschaft


Mechanisms of β-cell functional adaptation to changes in workload

Item Type:Review
Title:Mechanisms of β-cell functional adaptation to changes in workload
Creators Name:Wortham, M. and Sander, M.
Abstract:Insulin secretion must be tightly coupled to nutritional state to maintain blood glucose homeostasis. To this end, pancreatic β-cells sense and respond to changes in metabolic conditions, thereby anticipating insulin demands for a given physiological context. This is achieved in part through adjustments of nutrient metabolism, which is controlled at several levels including allosteric regulation, post-translational modifications, and altered expression of metabolic enzymes. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of β-cell metabolic and functional adaptation in the context of two physiological states that alter glucose-stimulated insulin secretion: fasting and insulin resistance. We review current knowledge of metabolic changes that occur in the β-cell during adaptation and specifically discuss transcriptional mechanisms that underlie β-cell adaptation. A more comprehensive understanding of how β-cells adapt to changes in nutrient state could identify mechanisms to be co-opted for therapeutically modulating insulin secretion in metabolic disease.
Keywords:ß-Cell, Adaptation, Fasting, Insulin Resistance, Insulin Secretion, Metabolism, Transcription, Animals
Source:Diabetes Obesity & Metabolism
Number:Suppl 1
Page Range:78-86
Date:September 2016
Additional Information:Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.12729
External Fulltext:View full text on PubMed Central
PubMed:View item in PubMed

Repository Staff Only: item control page

Open Access
MDC Library