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Diagnosis and classification of optic neuritis

Item Type:Review
Title:Diagnosis and classification of optic neuritis
Creators Name:Petzold, A. and Fraser, C.L. and Abegg, M. and Alroughani, R. and Alshowaeir, D. and Alvarenga, R. and Andris, C. and Asgari, N. and Barnett, Y. and Battistella, R. and Behbehani, R. and Berger, T. and Bikbov, M.M. and Biotti, D. and Biousse, V. and Boschi, A. and Brazdil, M. and Brezhnev, A. and Calabresi, P.A. and Cordonnier, M. and Costello, F. and Cruz, F.M. and Cunha, L.P. and Daoudi, S. and Deschamps, R. and de Seze, J. and Diem, R. and Etemadifar, M. and Flores-Rivera, J. and Fonseca, P. and Frederiksen, J. and Frohman, E. and Frohman, T. and Tilikete, C.F. and Fujihara, K. and Gálvez, A. and Gouider, R. and Gracia, F. and Grigoriadis, N. and Guajardo, J.M. and Habek, M. and Hawlina, M. and Martínez-Lapiscina, E.H. and Hooker, J. and Hor, J.Y. and Howlett, W. and Huang-Link, Y. and Idrissova, Z. and Illes, Z. and Jancic, J. and Jindahra, P. and Karussis, D. and Kerty, E. and Kim, H.J. and Lagrèze, W. and Leocani, L. and Levin, N. and Liskova, P. and Liu, Y. and Maiga, Y. and Marignier, R. and McGuigan, C. and Meira, D. and Merle, H. and Monteiro, M.L.R. and Moodley, A. and Moura, F. and Muñoz, S. and Mustafa, S. and Nakashima, I. and Noval, S. and Oehninger, C. and Ogun, O. and Omoti, A. and Pandit, L. and Paul, F. and Rebolleda, G. and Reddel, S. and Rejdak, K. and Rejdak, R. and Rodriguez-Morales, A.J. and Rougier, M.B. and Sa, M.J. and Sanchez-Dalmau, B. and Saylor, D. and Shatriah, I. and Siva, A. and Stiebel-Kalish, H. and Szatmary, G. and Ta, L. and Tenembaum, S. and Tran, H. and Trufanov, Y. and van Pesch, V. and Wang, A.G. and Wattjes, M.P. and Willoughby, E. and Zakaria, M. and Zvornicanin, J. and Balcer, L. and Plant, G.T.
Abstract:There is no consensus regarding the classification of optic neuritis, and precise diagnostic criteria are not available. This reality means that the diagnosis of disorders that have optic neuritis as the first manifestation can be challenging. Accurate diagnosis of optic neuritis at presentation can facilitate the timely treatment of individuals with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease. Epidemiological data show that, cumulatively, optic neuritis is most frequently caused by many conditions other than multiple sclerosis. Worldwide, the cause and management of optic neuritis varies with geographical location, treatment availability, and ethnic background. We have developed diagnostic criteria for optic neuritis and a classification of optic neuritis subgroups. Our diagnostic criteria are based on clinical features that permit a diagnosis of possible optic neuritis; further paraclinical tests, utilising brain, orbital, and retinal imaging, together with antibody and other protein biomarker data, can lead to a diagnosis of definite optic neuritis. Paraclinical tests can also be applied retrospectively on stored samples and historical brain or retinal scans, which will be useful for future validation studies. Our criteria have the potential to reduce the risk of misdiagnosis, provide information on optic neuritis disease course that can guide future treatment trial design, and enable physicians to judge the likelihood of a need for long-term pharmacological management, which might differ according to optic neuritis subgroups.
Keywords:Aquaporin 4, Autoantibodies, Multiple Sclerosis, Neuromyelitis Optica, Optic Neuritis, Retrospective Studies
Source:Lancet Neurology
ISSN:1474-4422
Publisher:Elsevier / Lancet
Volume:21
Number:12
Page Range:1120-1134
Date:December 2022
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00200-9
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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