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Preventing axonal sodium overload or mitochondrial calcium uptake protects axonal mitochondria from oxidative stress-induced alterations

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Item Type:Article
Title:Preventing axonal sodium overload or mitochondrial calcium uptake protects axonal mitochondria from oxidative stress-induced alterations
Creators Name:Ulshöfer, R. and Bros, H. and Hauser, A.E. and Niesner, R.A. and Paul, F. and Malla, B. and Infante-Duarte, C.
Abstract:In neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders such as multiple sclerosis, mitochondrial damage caused by oxidative stress is believed to contribute to neuroaxonal damage. Previously, we demonstrated that exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) alters mitochondrial morphology and motility in myelinated axons and that these changes initiate at the nodes of Ranvier, where numerous sodium channels are located. Therefore, we suggested that mitochondrial damage may lead to ATP deficit, thereby affecting the efficiency of the sodium-potassium ATPase and eventually leading to sodium overload in axons. The increased intra-axonal sodium may revert the axonal sodium-calcium exchangers and thus may lead to a pathological calcium overload in the axoplasm and mitochondria. Here, we used the explanted murine ventral spinal roots to investigate whether modulation of sodium or calcium influx may prevent mitochondrial alterations in myelinated axons during exogenous application of H(2)O(2) inducing oxidative stress. For that, tetrodotoxin, an inhibitor of voltage-gated sodium ion channels, and ruthenium 360, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter, were applied simultaneously with hydrogen peroxide to axons. Mitochondrial shape and motility were analyzed. We showed that inhibition of axonal sodium influx prevented oxidative stress-induced morphological changes (i.e., increase in circularity and area and decrease in length) and preserved mitochondrial membrane potential, which is crucial for ATP production. Blocking mitochondrial calcium uptake prevented decrease in mitochondrial motility and also preserved membrane potential. Our findings indicate that alterations of both mitochondrial morphology and motility in the contexts of oxidative stress can be counterbalanced by modulating intramitochondrial ion concentrations pharmacologically. Moreover, motile mitochondria show preserved membrane potentials, pointing to a close association between mitochondrial motility and functionality.
Keywords:Adenosine Triphosphate, Axons, Calcium, Hydrogen Peroxide, Mitochondria, Oxidative Stress, Sodium, Animals, Mice
Source:Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Page Range:6125711
Date:24 May 2022
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/6125711
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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