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Effect of atmospheric aging on soot particle toxicity in lung cell models at the air-liquid interface: differential toxicological impacts of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs)

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Title:Effect of atmospheric aging on soot particle toxicity in lung cell models at the air-liquid interface: differential toxicological impacts of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs)
Creators Name:Offer, S. and Hartner, E. and Di Bucchianico, S. and Bisig, C. and Bauer, S. and Pantzke, J. and Zimmermann, E.J. and Cao, X. and Binder, S. and Kuhn, E. and Huber, A. and Jeong, S. and Käfer, U. and Martens, P. and Mesceriakovas, A. and Bendl, J. and Brejcha, R. and Buchholz, A. and Gat, D. and Hohaus, T. and Rastak, N. and Jakobi, G. and Kalberer, M. and Kanashova, T. and Hu, Y. and Ogris, C. and Marsico, A. and Theis, F. and Pardo, M. and Gröger, T. and Oeder, S. and Orasche, J. and Paul, A. and Ziehm, T. and Zhang, Z.H. and Adam, T. and Sippula, O. and Sklorz, M. and Schnelle-Kreis, J. and Czech, H. and Kiendler-Scharr, A. and Rudich, Y. and Zimmermann, R.
Abstract:BACKGROUND: Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from anthropogenic or biogenic gaseous precursors in the atmosphere substantially contribute to the ambient fine particulate matter [PM (≤)2.5(μm) in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5))] burden, which has been associated with adverse human health effects. However, there is only limited evidence on their differential toxicological impact. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to discriminate toxicological effects of aerosols generated by atmospheric aging on combustion soot particles (SPs) of gaseous biogenic ((β)-pinene) or anthropogenic (naphthalene) precursors in two different lung cell models exposed at the air-liquid interface (ALI). METHODS: Mono- or cocultures of lung epithelial cells (A549) and endothelial cells (EA.hy926) were exposed at the ALI for 4 h to different aerosol concentrations of a photochemically aged mixture of primary combustion SP and (β)-pinene (SOA(βPIN)-SP) or naphthalene (SOA(NAP)-SP). The internally mixed soot/SOA particles were comprehensively characterized in terms of their physical and chemical properties. We conducted toxicity tests to determine cytotoxicity, intracellular oxidative stress, primary and secondary genotoxicity, as well as inflammatory and angiogenic effects. RESULTS: We observed considerable toxicity-related outcomes in cells treated with either SOA type. Greater adverse effects were measured for SOA(NAP)-SP compared with SOA(βPIN)-SP in both cell models, whereas the nano-sized soot cores alone showed only minor effects. At the functional level, we found that SOANAP-SP augmented the secretion of malondialdehyde and interleukin-8 and may have induced the activation of endothelial cells in the coculture system. This activation was confirmed by comet assay, suggesting secondary genotoxicity and greater angiogenic potential. Chemical characterization of PM revealed distinct qualitative differences in the composition of the two secondary aerosol types. DISCUSSION: In this study using A549 and EA.hy926 cells exposed at ALI, SOA compounds had greater toxicity than primary SPs. Photochemical aging of naphthalene was associated with the formation of more oxidized, more aromatic SOAs with a higher oxidative potential and toxicity compared with (β)-pinene. Thus, we conclude that the influence of atmospheric chemistry on the chemical PM composition plays a crucial role for the adverse health outcome of emissions.
Keywords:Aerosols, Aging, Air Pollutants, Endothelial Cells, Lung, Particulate Matter, Soot
Source:Environmental Health Perspectives
Publisher:National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Page Range:27003
Date:3 February 2022
Additional Information:Information of the publisher: "All documents published by EHP are in the public domain. PDF copies of published articles can be freely shared and distributed without permission from either EHP or the authors. However, authors of research articles do retain copyright of the article’s contents. Permission must be obtained from the authors before using or presenting the contents of a research article in a new way—for example, reproducing only one figure. Full licensing information for EHP content is available to answer more detailed questions.” [https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/about-ehp/license]
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9413
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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