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Increased salt intake decreases diet-induced thermogenesis in healthy volunteers: a randomized placebo-controlled study

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Item Type:Article
Title:Increased salt intake decreases diet-induced thermogenesis in healthy volunteers: a randomized placebo-controlled study
Creators Name:Mähler, A. and Klamer, S. and Maifeld, A. and Bartolomaeus, H. and Markó, L. and Chen, C.Y. and Forslund, S.K. and Boschmann, M. and Müller, D.N. and Wilck, N.
Abstract:High salt intake ranks among the most important risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. Western diets, which are typically high in salt, are associated with a high prevalence of obesity. High salt is thought to be a potential risk factor for obesity independent of energy intake, although the underlying mechanisms are insufficiently understood. A high salt diet could influence energy expenditure (EE), specifically diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), which accounts for about 10% of total EE. We aimed to investigate the influence of high salt on DIT. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, 40 healthy subjects received either 6 g/d salt (NaCl) or placebo in capsules over 2 weeks. Before and after the intervention, resting EE, DIT, body composition, food intake, 24 h urine analysis, and blood pressure were obtained. EE was measured by indirect calorimetry after a 12 h overnight fast and a standardized 440 kcal meal. Thirty-eight subjects completed the study. Salt intake from foods was 6 g/d in both groups, resulting in a total salt intake of 12 g/d in the salt group and 6 g/d in the placebo group. Urine sodium increased by 2.29 g/d (p < 0.0001) in the salt group, indicating overall compliance. The change in DIT differed significantly between groups (placebo vs. salt, p = 0.023). DIT decreased by 1.3% in the salt group (p = 0.048), but increased by 0.6% in the placebo group (NS). Substrate oxidation indicated by respiratory exchange ratio, body composition, resting blood pressure, fluid intake, hydration, and urine volume did not change significantly in either group. A moderate short-term increase in salt intake decreased DIT after a standardized meal. This effect could at least partially contribute to the observed weight gain in populations consuming a Western diet high in salt.
Keywords:Salt Challenge, Indirect Calorimetry, Blood Pressure, Body Composition, Food Intake, 24 h Urine Analysis
Page Range:253
Date:7 January 2022
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14020253
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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