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Cryo-electron tomography reveals four-membrane architecture of the Plasmodium apicoplast

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Item Type:Article
Title:Cryo-electron tomography reveals four-membrane architecture of the Plasmodium apicoplast
Creators Name:Lemgruber, L. and Kudryashev, M. and Dekiwadia, C. and Riglar, D.T. and Baum, J. and Stahlberg, H. and Ralph, S.A. and Frischknecht, F.
Abstract:BACKGROUND: The apicoplast is a plastid organelle derived from a secondary endosymbiosis, containing biosynthetic pathways essential for the survival of apicomplexan parasites. The Toxoplasma apicoplast clearly possesses four membranes but in related Plasmodium spp. the apicoplast has variably been reported to have either three or four membranes. METHODS: Cryo-electron tomography was employed to image merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei frozen in their near-native state. Three-dimensional reconstructions revealed the number of apicoplast membranes and the association of the apicoplast with other organelles. Routine transmission electron microscopy of parasites preserved by high-pressure freezing followed by freeze substitution techniques was also used to analyse apicoplast morphology. RESULTS: Cryo-preserved parasites showed clearly four membranes surrounding the apicoplast. A wider gap between the second and third apicoplast membranes was frequently observed. The apicoplast was found in close proximity to the nucleus and to the rhoptries. The apicoplast matrix showed ribosome-sized particles and membranous whorls. CONCLUSIONS: The Plasmodium apicoplast possesses four membranes, as do the apicoplasts of other apicomplexan parasites. This is consistent with a four-membraned secondary endosymbiotic plastid ancestor.
Keywords:Apicoplast, Cryo-Electron Tomography, Symbiosis, Organelle Interaction, Malaria
Source:Malaria Journal
Publisher:BioMed Central
Page Range:25
Date:19 January 2013
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-12-25
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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