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The role of microbiota in primary sclerosing cholangitis and related biliary malignancies

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Item Type:Review
Title:The role of microbiota in primary sclerosing cholangitis and related biliary malignancies
Creators Name:Özdirik, B. and Müller, T. and Wree, A. and Tacke, F. and Sigal, M.
Abstract:Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an immune-related cholangiopathy characterized by biliary inflammation, cholestasis, and multifocal bile duct strictures. It is associated with high rates of progression to end-stage liver disease as well as a significant risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), gallbladder cancer, and colorectal carcinoma. Currently, no effective medical treatment with an impact on the overall survival is available, and liver transplantation is the only curative treatment option. Emerging evidence indicates that gut microbiota is associated with disease pathogenesis. Several studies analyzing fecal and mucosal samples demonstrate a distinct gut microbiome in individuals with PSC compared to healthy controls and individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) without PSC. Experimental mouse and observational human data suggest that a diverse set of microbial functions may be relevant, including microbial metabolites and bacterial processing of pharmacological agents, bile acids, or dietary compounds, altogether driving the intrahepatic inflammation. Despite critical progress in this field over the past years, further functional characterization of the role of the microbiota in PSC and related malignancies is needed. In this review, we discuss the available data on the role of the gut microbiome and elucidate important insights into underlying pathogenic mechanisms and possible microbe-altering interventions.
Keywords:Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis, Gut-Liver Axis, Microbiome, Microbiota, Cholangiocellular Carcinoma, Animals, Mice
Source:International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Page Range:6975
Date:1 July 2021
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136975
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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