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Viruses and endogenous retroviruses as roots for neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases

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Item Type:Review
Title:Viruses and endogenous retroviruses as roots for neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases
Creators Name:Römer, C.
Abstract:Many neurodegenerative diseases are associated with chronic inflammation in the brain and periphery giving rise to a continuous imbalance of immune processes. Next to inflammation markers, activation of transposable elements, including long intrespersed nuclear elements (LINE) elements and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), has been identified during neurodegenerative disease progression and even correlated with the clinical severity of the disease. ERVs are remnants of viral infections in the human genome acquired during evolution. Upon activation, they produce transcripts and the phylogenetically youngest ones are still able to produce viral-like particles. In addition, ERVs can bind transcription factors and modulate immune response. Being between own and foreign, ERVs are reviewed in the context of viral infections of the central nervous system, in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, this review tests the hypothesis that viral infection may be a trigger at the onset of neuroinflammation and that ERVs sustain the inflammatory imbalance by summarizing existing data of neurodegenerative diseases associated with viruses and/or ERVs.
Keywords:HERV, LINE, Virus, Neurodegeneration, Neuroinflammation
Source:Frontiers in Neuroscience
Publisher:Frontiers Media SA
Page Range:648629
Date:12 March 2021
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.648629
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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