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Defence and adaptation mechanisms of the intestinal epithelium upon infection

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Item Type:Article
Title:Defence and adaptation mechanisms of the intestinal epithelium upon infection
Creators Name:Iftekhar, A. and Sigal, M.
Abstract:The intestinal epithelium is a monolayer of polarized columnar cells that act as a border between the host and its environment and are the first line of defence against the luminal microbes. In addition to providing a physical barrier, the epithelium possesses a multitude of active mechanisms to fight invading pathogens and regulate the composition and spatial distribution of commensals. The different epithelial cell types have unique functions in this context, and crosstalk with the immune system further modulates their intricate antimicrobial responses. The epithelium is organized into clonal crypt units with a high cellular turnover that is driven by stem cells located at the base. There is increasing evidence that this anatomical organization, the stem cell turnover, and the lineage determination processes are essential for barrier maintenance. These processes can be modulated by microbes directly or by the immune responses to enteric pathogens, resulting in a rapid and efficient adaptation of the epithelium to environmental perturbations, injuries, and infections. Here we discuss the complex host-microbial interactions that shape the mucosa and how the epithelium maintains and re-establishes homeostasis after infection.
Keywords:Intestinal Epithelium, Epithelial Barrier, Microbiota, Stem Cells, Pathogens
Source:International Journal of Medical Microbiology
Page Range:151486
Date:April 2021
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2021.151486
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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