Helmholtz Gemeinschaft


Physical mechanisms of chromatin spatial organization

Item Type:Review
Title:Physical mechanisms of chromatin spatial organization
Creators Name:Chiariello, A.M. and Bianco, S. and Esposito, A. and Fiorillo, L. and Conte, M. and Irani, E. and Musella, F. and Abraham, A. and Prisco, A. and Nicodemi, M.
Abstract:In higher eukaryotes, chromosomes have a complex three‐dimensional (3D) conformation in the cell nucleus serving vital functional purposes, yet their folding principles remain poorly understood at the single‐molecule level. Here, we summarize recent approaches from polymer physics to comprehend the physical mechanisms underlying chromatin architecture. In particular, we focus on two models that have been supported by recent, growing experimental evidence, the Loop‐Extrusion model and the Strings&Binders phase separation model. We discuss their key ingredients, how they compare to experimental data and some insight they provide on chromatin architecture and gene regulation. Progresses in that research field are opening the possibility to predict how genomic mutations alter the network of contacts between genes and their regulators and how that is linked to genetic diseases, such as congenital disorders and cancer.
Keywords:Chromatin Architecture, Polymer Physics, Active Motors, Phase Separation, Computer, Simulations, Machine Learning
Source:FEBS Journal
Page Range:1180-1190
Date:March 2022
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1111/febs.15762
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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