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Neurons and other excitable cells

Item Type:Book Section
Title:Neurons and other excitable cells
Creators Name:Dupont, G. and Falcke, M. and Kirk, V. and Sneyd, J.
Abstract:Calcium plays a major role in every neuron. Not only does it play a part in controlling the membrane potential, but it is also a crucial ingredient of both the pre-synaptic and post-synaptic terminals. At the pre-synaptic terminal the secretion of neurotransmitter is controlled by Ca2+, as is short-term plasticity , while in the post-synaptic terminal Ca(2+) is both necessary and sufficient for long-term synaptic plasticity, i.e., long-term depression, long-term potentiation, and spike-timing-dependent plasticity. In neuroendocrine cells from the hypothalamus and pituitary, as well as in the endocrine pancreas, Ca(2+) controls the membrane potential, the shape of the bursts of electrical spiking, and the secretion of hormones. In photoreceptors and olfactory receptors , Ca(2+) is at the centre of the biochemical networks that control adaptation to a maintained stimulus, while in interstitial cells of Cajal Ca(2+) controls the membrane potential in ways that we do not yet fully understand. There are many other examples of the importance of Ca(2+) in neurons and excitable cells.
Keywords:GnRH Neuron, Fast Subsystem, Geometric Singular Perturbation Theory, Interburst Interval, Pancreatic Alpha Cell
Series Name:Interdisciplinary Applied Mathematics
Title of Book:Models of Calcium Signalling
Page Range:337-385
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-29647-0_8
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