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HCoV- and SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive T cells in CVID patients

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Item Type:Article
Title:HCoV- and SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive T cells in CVID patients
Creators Name:Steiner, S. and Sotzny, F. and Bauer, S. and Na, I.K. and Schmueck-Henneresse, M. and Corman, V.M. and Schwarz, T. and Drosten, C. and Wendering, D.J. and Behrends, U. and Volk, H.D. and Scheibenbogen, C. and Hanitsch, L.G.
Abstract:The inability of patients with CVID to mount specific antibody responses to pathogens has raised concerns on the risk and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but there might be a role for protective T cells in these patients. SARS-CoV-2 reactive T cells have been reported for SARS-CoV-2 unexposed healthy individuals. Until now, there is no data on T cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection in CVID. This study aimed to evaluate reactive T cells to human endemic corona viruses (HCoV) and to study pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 reactive T cells in unexposed CVID patients. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2- and HCoV-229E and –OC43 reactive T cells in response to seven peptide pools, including spike and nucleocapsid (NCAP) proteins, in 11 unexposed CVID, 12 unexposed and 11 post COVID-19 healthy controls (HC). We further characterized reactive T cells by IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2 profiles. SARS-CoV-2 spike-reactive CD4+ T cells were detected in 7 of 11 unexposed CVID patients, albeit with fewer multifunctional (IFNγ/TNFα/IL-2) cells than unexposed HC. CVID patients had no SARS-CoV-2 NCAP reactive CD4+ T cells and less reactive CD8+ cells compared to unexposed HC. We observed a correlation between T cell reactivity against spike of SARS-CoV-2 and HCoVs in unexposed, but not post COVID-19 HC, suggesting cross-reactivity. T cell responses in post COVID-19 HC could be distinguished from unexposed HC by higher frequencies of triple-positive NCAP reactive CD4+ T cells. Taken together, SARS-CoV-2 reactive T cells are detectable in unexposed CVID patients albeit with lower recognition frequencies and polyfunctional potential. Frequencies of triple-functional reactive CD4+ cells might provide a marker to distinguish HCoV cross-reactive from SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses. Our data provides evidence, that anti-viral T cell immunity is not relevantly impaired in most CVID patients.
Keywords:Common Variable Immunodeficiency Disorder (CVID), Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), T Cell Response, Primary Immunodeficiency (PID), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Human Endemic Coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), Human Endemic Coronavirus OC-43 (HCoV-OC43)
Source:Frontiers in Immunology
Publisher:Frontiers Media SA
Page Range:607918
Date:23 December 2020
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.607918
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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