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Neurobiology of glycine transporters: from molecules to behavior

Item Type:Review
Title:Neurobiology of glycine transporters: from molecules to behavior
Creators Name:Marques, B.L. and Oliveira-Lima, O.C. and Carvalho, G.A. and de Almeida Chiarelli, R. and Ribeiro, R.I. and Parreira, R.C. and da Madeira Freitas, E.M. and Resende, R.R. and Klempin, F. and Ulrich, H. and Gomez, R.S. and Pinto, M.C.X.
Abstract:Glycine transporters (GlyTs) are Na(+)/Cl--dependent neurotransmitter transporters, responsible for L-glycine uptake into the central nervous system. GlyTs are members of the solute carrier family 6 (SLC6) and comprise glycine transporter type 1 (SLC6A9; GlyT1) and glycine transporter type 2 (SLC6A5; Glyt2). GlyT1 and GlyT2 are expressed on both astrocytes and neurons, but their expression pattern in brain tissue is foremost related to neurotransmission. GlyT2 is markedly expressed in brainstem, spinal cord and cerebellum, where it is responsible for glycine uptake into glycinergic and GABAergic terminals. GlyT1 is abundant in neocortex, thalamus and hippocampus, where it is expressed in astrocytes, and involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission. Consequently, inhibition of GlyT1 transporters can modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission through NMDA receptors, suggesting an alternative therapeutic strategy. In this review, we focus on recent progress in the understanding of GlyTs role in brain function and in various diseases, such as epilepsy, hyperekplexia, neuropathic pain, drug addiction, schizophrenia, beta-thalassemia and stroke, as well as in neurodegenerative disorders.
Keywords:Glycine Transporters, GlyT1, GlyT2, Glutamatergic Neurotransmission and Glycine Neurotransmission
Source:Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Page Range:97-110
Date:November 2020
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.07.025
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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