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Near real-time bedside detection of spinal cord ischaemia during aortic repair by microdialysis of the cerebrospinal fluid

Item Type:Article
Title:Near real-time bedside detection of spinal cord ischaemia during aortic repair by microdialysis of the cerebrospinal fluid
Creators Name:Simoniuk, U.D. and Haunschild, J. and von Aspern, K. and Boschmann, M. and Klug, L. and Khachatryan, Z. and Bianchi, E. and Ossmann, S. and Oo, A.Y. and Borger, M.A. and Etz, C.D.
Abstract:OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord ischaemia (SCI) remains the most devastating complication after thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair. Its early detection is crucial if therapeutic interventions are to be successful. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is readily available and accessible to microdialysis (MD) capable of detecting metabolites involved in SCI [i.e. lactate, pyruvate, the lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR), glucose and glycerol] in real time. Our aim was to evaluate the feasibility of CSF MD for the real-time detection of SCI metabolites. METHODS: In a combined experimental and translational approach, CSF MD was evaluated (i) in an established experimental large animal model of SCI with 2 arms: (a) after aortic cross-clamping (AXC, N = 4), simulating open TAAA repair and (b) after total segmental artery sacrifice (Th4-L5, N = 8) simulating thoracic endovascular aortic repair. The CSF was analysed utilizing MD every 15 min. Additionally, CSF was collected hourly from 6 patients undergoing open TAAA repair in a high-volume aortic reference centre and analysed using CSF MD. RESULTS: In the experimental AXC group, CSF lactate increased 3-fold after 10 min and 10-fold after 60 min of SCI. Analogously, the LPR increased 5-fold by the end of the main AXC period. Average glucose levels demonstrated a 1.5-fold increase at the end of the first (preconditioning) AXC period (0.60±0.14 vs 0.97±0.32 mmol/l); however, they decreased below (to 1/3 of) baseline levels (0.60±0.14 vs 0.19±0.13 mmol/l) by the end of the experiment (after simulated distal arrest). In the experimental segmental artery sacrifice group, lactate levels doubled and the LPR increased 3.3-fold within 30 min and continued to increase steadily almost 5-fold 180 min after total segmental artery sacrifice (P < 0.05). In patients undergoing TAAA repair, lactate similarly increased 5-fold during ischaemia, reaching a maximum at 6 h postoperatively. In 2 patients with intraoperative SCI, indicated by a decrease in the motor evoked potential of >50%, the LPR increased by 200%. CONCLUSIONS: CSF is widely available during and after TAAA repair, and CSF MD is feasible for detection of early anaerobic metabolites of SCI. CSF MD is a promising new tool combining bedside availability and real-time capacity to potentially enable rapid detection of imminent SCI, thereby maximizing chances to prevent permanent paraplegia in patients with TAAA.
Keywords:Thoraco-Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Microdialysis
Source:European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
Publisher:Oxford University Press
Page Range:629-637
Date:September 2020
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezaa124
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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