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Sodium handling and interaction in numerous organs

Item Type:Review
Title:Sodium handling and interaction in numerous organs
Creators Name:Minegishi, S. and Luft, F.C. and Titze, J. and Kitada, K.
Abstract:Salt (NaCl) is a prerequisite for life. Excessive intake of salt, however, is said to increase disease risk including hypertension, arteriosclerosis, heart failure, renal disease, stroke, and cancer. Therefore, considerable research has been expended on the mechanism of sodium handling based on the current concepts of sodium balance. The studies have necessarily relied on relatively short-term experiments and focused on extremes of salt intake in humans. Ultra-long-term salt balance has received far less attention. We performed long-term salt balance studies at intakes of 6, 9, and 12 g/day and found that although the kidney remains the long-term excretory gate, tissue and plasma sodium concentrations are not necessarily the same and that urinary salt excretion does not necessarily reflect total-body salt content. We found that to excrete salt, the body makes a great effort to conserve water, resulting in a natriuretic-ureotelic principle of salt excretion. Of note, renal sodium handling is characterized by osmolyte excretion with anti-parallel water reabsorption, a state-of-affairs that is achieved through the interaction of multiple organs. In this review, we discuss novel sodium and water balance concepts in reference to our ultra-long-term study. An important key to understanding body sodium metabolism is to focus on water conservation, a biological principle to protect from dehydration, since excess dietary salt excretion into the urine predisposes to renal water loss because of natriuresis. We believe that our research direction is relevant not only to salt balance but also to cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms.
Keywords:Blood Pressure, Body Fluid, Energy Metabolism, Estivation, Hypertension, Osmolyte, Salt, Urea, Animals
Source:American Journal of Hypertension
Publisher:Oxford University Press
Page Range:687-694
Date:August 2020
Additional Information:Copyright © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2020. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpaa049
External Fulltext:View full text on PubMed Central
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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