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Single-cell analysis of the 3D topologies of genomic loci using genome architecture mapping

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Item Type:Preprint
Title:Single-cell analysis of the 3D topologies of genomic loci using genome architecture mapping
Creators Name:Welch, L.R. and Baugher, C. and Zhang, Y. and Davis, T. and Marzluff, W.F. and Welch, J.D. and Pombo, A.
Abstract:Although each cell within an organism contains a nearly identical genome sequence, the three-dimensional (3D) packing of the genome varies among individual cells, influencing cell-type-specific gene expression. Genome Architecture Mapping (GAM) is the first genome-wide experimental method for capturing 3D proximities between any number of genomic loci without ligation. GAM overcomes several limitations of 3C-based methods by sequencing DNA from a large collection of thin sections sliced from individual nuclei. The GAM technique measures locus co-segregation, extracts radial positions, infers chromatin compaction, requires small numbers of cells, does not depend on ligation, and provides rich single-cell information. However, previous analyses of GAM data focused exclusively on population averages, neglecting the variation in 3D topology among individual cells. We present the first single-cell analysis of GAM data, demonstrating that the slices from individual cells reveal intercellular heterogeneity in chromosome conformation. By simultaneously clustering both slices and genomic loci, we identify topological variation among single cells, including differential compaction of cell cycle genes. We also develop a geometric model of the nucleus, allowing prediction of the 3D positions of each slice. Using GAM data from mouse embryonic stem cells, we make new discoveries about the structure of the major mammalian histone gene locus, which is incorporated into the Histone Locus Body (HLB), including structural fluctuations and putative causal molecular mechanisms. Our methods are packaged as SluiceBox, a toolkit for mining GAM data. Our approach represents a new method of investigating variation in 3D genome topology among individual cells across space and time.
Publisher:Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Article Number:2020.02.10.941047
Date:13 February 2020
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.10.941047

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