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Oxidative stress in rheumatoid arthritis: what the future might hold regarding novel biomarkers and add-on therapies

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Item Type:Review
Title:Oxidative stress in rheumatoid arthritis: what the future might hold regarding novel biomarkers and add-on therapies
Creators Name:da Fonseca, L.J.S. and Nunes-Souza, V. and Goulart, M.O.F. and Rabelo, L.A.
Abstract:Numerous rheumatologic autoimmune diseases, among which rheumatoid arthritis, are chronic inflammatory diseases capable of inducing multiple cumulative articular and extra-articular damage, if not properly treated. Nevertheless, benign conditions may, similarly, exhibit arthritis as their major clinical finding, but with short-term duration instead, and evolve to spontaneous resolution in a few days to weeks, without permanent articular damage. Such distinction-self-limited arthritis with no need of immunosuppressive treatment or chronic arthritis at early stages?-represents one of the greatest challenges in clinical practice, once many metabolic, endocrine, neoplastic, granulomatous, infectious diseases and other autoimmune conditions may mimic rheumatoid arthritis. Indeed, the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis at early stages is a crucial step to a more effective mitigation of the disease-related damage. As a prototype of chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis has been linked to oxidative stress, a condition in which the pool of reactive oxygen species increases over time, either by their augmented production, the reduction in antioxidant defenses, or the combination of both, ultimately implying compromise in the redox signaling. The exact mechanisms through which oxidative stress may contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of local (in the articular milieu) and systemic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, particularly at early stages, still remain to be determined. Furthermore, the role of antioxidants as therapeutic adjuvants in the control of disease activity seems to be overlooked, as a little number of short studies addressing this issue is currently found. Thus, the present review focuses on the binomial rheumatoid arthritis-oxidative stress, bringing insights into their pathophysiological relationships, as well as the implications of potential diagnostic oxidative stress biomarkers and therapeutic interventions directed to the oxidative status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Keywords:Adjuvant Chemotherapy, Antioxidants, Antirheumatic Agents, Biomarkers, Oxidation-Reduction, Oxidative Stress, Reactive Oxygen Species, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Animals
Source:Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Number:Special issue
Page Range:7536805
Date:16 December 2019
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/7536805
External Fulltext:View full text on PubMed Central
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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