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Vaccines and the association with relapses in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

Item Type:Article
Title:Vaccines and the association with relapses in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder
Creators Name:Mealy, M.A. and Cook, L.J. and Pache, F. and Velez, D.L. and Borisow, N. and Becker, D. and Jimenez Arango, J.A. and Paul, F. and Levy, M.
Abstract:BACKGROUND: It is unknown if vaccines cause non-specific immune activation in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and no consensus on the use of vaccines exists for this population. We investigated the temporal association of vaccinations with relapses in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. METHODS: This is a multi-center retrospective analysis of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder for whom immunization history and clinical records from disease onset were available. Ninety patients who met 2015 diagnostic criteria received a total of 211 vaccinations and experienced 340 relapses over a median disease course of 6.6 years. The likelihood of a relapse occurring within 30, 60, and 90 days of a vaccine was compared to the likelihood of a relapse occurring within each time point of a randomly generated date. We also compared the relapse rate between patients who received any vaccination(s) after disease onset to those who did not. RESULTS: We identified seven patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder who relapsed within 30 days of a vaccination, six between 31 and 60 days, and four who relapsed between 61 and 90 days. The rate of vaccine-associated relapses within 30, 60, and 90 days was significantly higher than the likelihood of a relapse spontaneously occurring within each of the given time frames (p = 0.034, 0.01, 0.016, respectively) among patients who were not on preventive immunotherapy only. Among those who were on immunotherapy to prevent relapses, there was no significant association of relapse with vaccines. Additionally, among patients on immunotherapy, the annualized relapse rate of those who received routine vaccinations was significantly lower than in unvaccinated patients. CONCLUSION: The evidence suggests that there may be a risk of vaccination-associated relapses among untreated neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder patients, however immunosuppressive therapy at time of vaccine may abort the risk; this suggests that the patients who are treated with preventive immune suppression and receive routine vaccinations for common infections may fare better. Further prospective studies are necessary to verify these findings.
Keywords:Neuromyelitis Optica, Vaccines, Risk Factors, Aquaporin 4, Immunotherapy
Source:Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders
ISSN:2211-0348
Publisher:Elsevier (U.K.)
Volume:23
Page Range:78-82
Date:July 2018
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2018.05.003
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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