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High peak and high average radiofrequency power transmit/receive switch for thermal magnetic resonance

Item Type:Article
Title:High peak and high average radiofrequency power transmit/receive switch for thermal magnetic resonance
Creators Name:Ji, Y. and Hoffmann, W. and Pham, M. and Dunn, A.E. and Han, H. and Özerdem, C. and Waiczies, H. and Rohloff, M. and Endemann, B. and Boyer, C. and Lim, M. and Niendorf, T. and Winter, L.
Abstract:PURPOSE: To study the role of temperature in biological systems, diagnostic contrasts and thermal therapies, RF pulses for MR spin excitation can be deliberately used to apply a thermal stimulus. This application requires dedicated transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) switches that support high peak powers for MRI and high average powers for RF heating. To meet this goal, we propose a high‐performance Tx/Rx switch based on positive‐intrinsic‐negative diodes and quarter‐wavelength (λ/4) stubs. METHODS: The λ/4 stubs in the proposed Tx/Rx switch design route the transmitted RF signal directly to the RF coil/antenna without passing through any electronic components (e.g., positive‐intrinsic‐negative diodes). Bench measurements, MRI, MR thermometry, and RF heating experiments were performed at f = 297 MHz (B0 = 7 T) to examine the characteristics and applicability of the switch. RESULTS: The proposed design provided an isolation of −35.7dB/−41.5dB during transmission/reception. The insertion loss was −0.41dB/−0.27dB during transmission/reception. The switch supports high peak (3.9 kW) and high average (120 W) RF powers for MRI and RF heating at f = 297 MHz. High‐resolution MRI of the wrist yielded image quality competitive with that obtained with a conventional Tx/Rx switch. Radiofrequency heating in phantom monitored by MR thermometry demonstrated the switch applicability for thermal modulation. Upon these findings, thermally activated release of a model drug attached to thermoresponsive polymers was demonstrated. CONCLUSION: The high‐power Tx/Rx switch enables thermal MR applications at 7 T, contributing to the study of the role of temperature in biological systems and diseases. All design files of the switch will be made available open source at www.opensourceimaging.org.
Keywords:Open Source Hardware, RF Induced Heating, Thermal Magnetic Resonance, Transmit Receive Switch, Ultrahigh Field MR
Source:Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Page Range:2246-2255
Date:November 2018
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1002/mrm.27194
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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