Helmholtz Gemeinschaft


Underlying mechanisms for distant metastasis - molecular biology

Item Type:Review
Title:Underlying mechanisms for distant metastasis - molecular biology
Creators Name:Pachmayr, E. and Treese, C. and Stein, U.
Abstract:BACKGROUND: The formation of distant metastases constitutes a complex process with a variety of different genes and pathways involved. To improve patient survival, it is necessary to understand the underlying mechanisms of metastasis to allow for targeted intervention. METHODS: This review provides an overview of the general concepts of metastasis, focusing on the most important genes and pathways involved and on interventional strategies. RESULTS: Cancer cells undergo different steps to form metastasis: most prominently, local invasion, intravasation, survival in the circulation, arrest at a distant organ site and extravasation, micrometastasis formation, and metastatic colonization. In order to pass these steps, different molecular pathways are of major importance: EGF/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, HGF/Met, Wnt/{beta}-catenin, and VEGF signaling. The HGF/Met regulator MACC1 and the Wnt signaling target S100A4 have been shown to play a major role in the metastatic process. Each gene and pathway provides an opportunity for therapeutic intervention. CONCLUSION: Since metastasis represents a highly limiting factor in cancer therapy causing 90% of cancer deaths, it is imperative to reveal the underlying mechanisms. This is fundamental for uncovering prognostic markers and new targeted therapy options.
Keywords:Metastasis, Molecular Mechanism, Cancer Therapy
Source:Visceral Medicine
Page Range:11-20
Date:February 2017
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1159/000454696
External Fulltext:View full text on PubMed Central
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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