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Speculations on salt and the genesis of arterial hypertension

Item Type:Review
Title:Speculations on salt and the genesis of arterial hypertension
Creators Name:Titze, Jens and Luft, F.C.
Abstract:Blood pressure salt sensitivity and salt resistance are mechanistically imperfectly explained. A prescient systems medicine approach by Guyton and colleagues-more than 50 years ago-suggested how salt intake might influence blood pressure. They proposed that a high-salt diet engenders sodium accumulation, volume expansion, cardiac output adjustments, and then autoregulation for flow maintenance. The autoregulation in all vascular beds increases systemic vascular resistance, causing the kidneys to excrete more salt and water, thus reducing systems to normal and minimizing any changes in blood pressure. This schema, which is remarkably all encompassing, included all regulatory mechanisms Guyton could identify at the time. Guyton introduced the idea that the kidney is central, particularly concerning the regulation of renal pressure natriuresis. Numerous criticisms have been subsequently raised, particularly recently. Kurtz and colleagues argue that the ability of individuals to respond with an appropriate vasodilatory response to increased salt intake is pivotal. Data exist to address that issue. Salt-resistant hypertensive models provide additional information. We identified a mendelian form of hypertension not related to sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron. The hypertension develops because of increased systemic vascular resistance. In addition, we rediscovered a third salt-storage glycose-aminoglycan-related compartment, largely in the skin. This compartment operates independently of renal function, and when perturbed, is associated with salt sensitivity. More recently, we found novel molecular mechanisms demonstrating how large salt quantities are excreted by the kidneys with minimal water losses. We introduce novel interpretations as to how the kidneys excrete salt when the intake is high. The findings could have relevance as to how blood pressure may be regulated at varying salt intakes. Our purposes are to provide the readership with a banquet of thoughts to digest, to pursue Guyton's ideas, and to adjust them accordingly.
Keywords:Cardiovascular Disease, Hypertension, Salt, Sodium, Animals
Source:Kidney International
Page Range:1324-1335
Date:June 2017
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2017.02.034
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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