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Degrons in cancer

Item Type:Review
Title:Degrons in cancer
Creators Name:Meszaros, B. and Kumar, M. and Gibson, T.J. and Uyar, B. and Dosztanyi, Z.
Abstract:Degrons are the elements that are used by E3 ubiquitin ligases to target proteins for degradation. Most degrons are short linear motifs embedded within the sequences of modular proteins. As regulatory sites for protein abundance, they are important for many different cellular processes, such as progression through the cell cycle and monitoring cellular hypoxia. Degrons enable the elimination of proteins that are no longer required, preventing their possible dysfunction. Although the human genome encodes ~600 E3 ubiquitin ligases, only a fraction of these enzymes have well-defined target degrons. Thus, for most cellular proteins, the destruction mechanisms are poorly understood. This is important for many diseases, especially for cancer, a disease that involves the enhanced expression of oncogenes and the persistence of encoded oncoproteins coupled with reduced abundance of tumor suppressors. Loss-of-function mutations occur in the degrons of several oncoproteins, such as the transcription factors MYC and NRF2, and in various mitogenic receptors, such as NOTCH1 and several receptor tyrosine kinases. Mutations eliminating the function of the {beta}-catenin degron are found in many cancers and are considered one of the most abundant mutations driving carcinogenesis. In this Review, we describe the current knowledge of degrons in cancer and suggest that increased research on the "dark degrome" (unknown degron-E3 relationships) would enhance progress in cancer research.
Keywords:Binding Sites, Models, Biological, Models, Molecular, Neoplasms, Oncogene Proteins, Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex, Protein Domains, Proteolysis, Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
Source:Science Signaling
Publisher:American Association for the Advancement of Science
Page Range:eaak9982
Date:14 March 2017
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.aak9982
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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