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Biomarkers in acute kidney injury - pathophysiological basis and clinical performance

Item Type:Review
Title:Biomarkers in acute kidney injury - pathophysiological basis and clinical performance
Creators Name:Schrezenmeier, E.V. and Barasch, J. and Budde, K. and Westhoff, T. and Schmidt-Ott, K.M.
Abstract:Various biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) have been discovered and characterized in the recent past. These molecules can be detected in urine or blood and signify structural damage to the kidney. Clinically, they are proposed as adjunct diagnostics to serum creatinine and urinary output to improve the early detection, differential diagnosis and prognostic assessment of AKI. The most obvious requirements for a biomarker include its reflection of the underlying pathophysiology of the disease. Hence, a biomarker of AKI should derive from the injured kidney and reflect a molecular process intimately connected with tissue injury. Here, we provide an overview of the basic pathophysiology, the cellular sources and the clinical performance of the most important currently proposed biomarkers of acute kidney injury: neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), interleukin 18 (IL-18), insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), and calprotectin (S100A8/9). We also acknowledge each biomarker's advantages and disadvantages as well as important knowledge gaps and perspectives for future studies.
Keywords:Acute Kidney Injury, Biomarkers, Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL), Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (KIM-1), Liver-type Fatty Acid-binding Protein (L-FABP), Interleukin 18 (IL-18), Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and IGF-binding Protein 7 (IGFBP7), Calprotectin
Source:Acta Physiologica
ISSN:1748-1708
Publisher:Wiley (U.K.)
Volume:219
Number:3
Page Range:554-572
Date:March 2017
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1111/apha.12764
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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