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How to grow a kidney: patient-specific kidney organoids come of age

Item Type:Review
Title:How to grow a kidney: patient-specific kidney organoids come of age
Creators Name:Schmidt-Ott, K.M.
Abstract:The notion of regrowing a patient's kidney in a dish has fascinated researchers for decades and has spurred visions of revolutionary clinical applications. Recently, this option has come closer to reality. Key technologies have been developed to generate patient-specific pluripotent stem cells and to edit their genome. Several laboratories have devised protocols to differentiate patient-specific pluripotent stem cells into kidney cells or into in vitro organoids that resemble the kidney with respect to cell types, tissue architecture and disease pathology. This was possible because of rapidly expanding knowledge regarding the cellular and molecular basis of embryonic kidney development. Generating kidney cells or organoids from patient-specific stem cells may prove to be clinically useful in several ways. First, patient-specific kidney cells or organoids could be used to predict an individual's response to stressors, toxins or medications and thereby develop personalized treatment decisions. Second, patient-specific stem cells harbour the individual's genetic defects. This may potentially enable genetic rescue attempts to establish the significance of a genetic defect in a stem cell-derived organoid or it may allow testing of patient-specific targeted therapies for kidney disease in vitro From a tissue engineering perspective, patient-specific kidney organoids might provide a key advance towards engineering immunocompatible transplantable kidneys. This review article summarizes recent developments in the field and discusses its current limitations and future perspectives.
Keywords:Human Kidney Disease Model, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Kidney Development, Kidney Organoids, Regenerative Nephrology, Animals
Source:Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Publisher:Oxford University Press
Page Range:17-23
Date:January 2017
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfw256
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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