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Iatrogene Elektrolytstoerungen [Iatrogenic Electrolyte Disorders]

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Item Type:Article
Title:Iatrogene Elektrolytstoerungen [Iatrogenic Electrolyte Disorders]
Creators Name:Kettritz, R. and Luft, F.C.
Abstract:The maintenance of water and electrolyte homeostasis is of enormous importance for the functioning of cells and tissues. A number of therapeutic procedures intentionally or unintentionally influence important regulatory mechanisms of these interdependent balanced systems. Excessive salt intake doesn't only expand the extracellular volume; it can also cause a considerable increase in tonicity. Owing to its insulin-dependent duality of action, glucose can represent an effective or an ineffective osmolyte. This fact has to be considered in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Diuretics reduce the volume expansion via renal excretion of sodium (and water); however, in addition to hypokalemia, diuretics can also cause severe alkalosis. Nowadays, hemodialysis is a routine procedure-but even routine procedures can deliver undesirable surprises. Can dialysis cause an increase in calcium levels, or does the procedure remove therapeutically administered radioactive iodine? The current article presents a series of cases we have come across in recent years. These case reports illustrate common, but also rare iatrogenic situations. The discussion of these cases is aimed at raising awareness of the issues involved in a pathophysiological approach to clinical problems.
Keywords:Acid-Base Equilibrium, Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, Phosphates
Page Range:745-752
Date:1 July 2015
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00108-015-3671-6
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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