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Neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis: Seeing differences through optical coherence tomography

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Item Type:Review
Title:Neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis: Seeing differences through optical coherence tomography
Creators Name:Bennett, J.L. and de Seze, J. and Lana-Peixoto, M. and Palace, J. and Waldman, A. and Schippling, S. and Tenembaum, S. and Banwell, B. and Greenberg, B. and Levy, M. and Fujihara, K. and Chan, K.H. and Kim, H.J. and Asgari, N. and Sato, D.K. and Saiz, A. and Wuerfel, J. and Zimmermann, H. and Green, A. and Villoslada, P. and Paul, F.
Abstract:Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that preferentially targets the optic nerves and spinal cord. The clinical presentation may suggest multiple sclerosis (MS), but a highly specific serum autoantibody against the astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 present in up to 80% of NMO patients enables distinction from MS. Optic neuritis may occur in either condition resulting in neuro-anatomical retinal changes. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become a useful tool for analyzing retinal damage both in MS and NMO. Numerous studies showed that optic neuritis in NMO typically results in more severe retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer thinning and more frequent development of microcystic macular edema than in MS. Furthermore, while patients' RNFL thinning also occurs in the absence of optic neuritis in MS, subclinical damage seems to be rare in NMO. Thus, OCT might be useful in differentiating NMO from MS and serve as an outcome parameter in clinical studies.
Keywords:Neuromyelitis Optica, Optical Coherence Tomography, Multiple Sclerosis, Optic Neuritis, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, Ganglion Cell Layer
Source:Multiple Sclerosis Journal
ISSN:1352-4585
Publisher:Sage Publications (U.K.)
Volume:21
Number:6
Page Range:678-688
Date:May 2015
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1177/1352458514567216
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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