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The Transformer database: biotransformation of xenobiotics

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Item Type:Article
Title:The Transformer database: biotransformation of xenobiotics
Creators Name:Hoffmann, M.F. and Preissner, S.C. and Nickel, J. and Dunkel, M. and Preissner, R. and Preissner, S.
Abstract:As the number of prescribed drugs is constantly rising, drug-drug interactions are an important issue. The simultaneous administration of several drugs can cause severe adverse effects based on interactions with the same metabolizing enzyme(s). The Transformer database (http://bioinformatics.charite.de/transformer) contains integrated information on the three phases of biotransformation (modification, conjugation and excretion) of 3000 drugs and >350 relevant food ingredients (e.g. grapefruit juice) and herbs, which are catalyzed by 400 proteins. A total of 100 000 interactions were found through text mining and manual validation. The 3D structures of 200 relevant proteins are included. The database enables users to search for drugs with a visual display of known interactions with phase I (Cytochrome P450) and phase II enzymes, transporters, food and herbs. For each interaction, PubMed references are given. To detect mutual impairments of drugs, the drug-cocktail tool displays interactions between selected drugs. By choosing the indication for a drug, the tool offers suggestions for alternative medications to avoid metabolic conflicts. Drug interactions can also be visualized in an interactive network view. Additionally, prodrugs, including their mechanisms of activation, and further information on enzymes of biotransformation, including 3D models, can be viewed.
Keywords:Biotransformation, Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System, Data Mining, Chemical Databases, Enzymes, Internet, Membrane Transport Proteins, Pharmacokinetics, Prodrugs, Protein Conformation, Xenobiotics
Source:Nucleic Acids Research
ISSN:0305-1048
Publisher:Oxford University Press (U.K.)
Volume:42
Number:1
Page Range:D1113-D1117
Date:1 January 2014
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkt1246
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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