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Human monogenic disease genes have frequently functionally redundant paralogs

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Item Type:Article
Title:Human monogenic disease genes have frequently functionally redundant paralogs
Creators Name:Chen, W.H. and Zhao, X.M. and van Noort, V. and Bork, P.
Abstract:Mendelian disorders are often caused by mutations in genes that are not lethal but induce functional distortions leading to diseases. Here we study the extent of gene duplicates that might compensate genes causing monogenic diseases. We provide evidence for pervasive functional redundancy of human monogenic disease genes (MDs) by duplicates by manifesting 1) genes involved in human genetic disorders are enriched in duplicates and 2) duplicated disease genes tend to have higher functional similarities with their closest paralogs in contrast to duplicated non-disease genes of similar age. We propose that functional compensation by duplication of genes masks the phenotypic effects of deleterious mutations and reduces the probability of purging the defective genes from the human population; this functional compensation could be further enhanced by higher purification selection between disease genes and their duplicates as well as their orthologous counterpart compared to non-disease genes. However, due to the intrinsic expression stochasticity among individuals, the deleterious mutations could still be present as genetic diseases in some subpopulations where the duplicate copies are expressed at low abundances. Consequently the defective genes are linked to genetic disorders while they continue propagating within the population. Our results provide insight into the molecular basis underlying the spreading of duplicated disease genes.
Keywords:Genetic Databases, Disease, Molecular Evolution, Gene Expression Profiling, Duplicate Genes, Human Genome, Genomics, Genetic Models, Mutation
Source:PLoS Computational Biology
ISSN:1553-7358
Publisher:Public Library of Science (U.S.A.)
Volume:9
Number:5
Page Range:e1003073
Date:May 2013
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003073
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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