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Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles highlight early involvement of the choroid plexus in central nervous system inflammation

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Item Type:Article
Title:Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles highlight early involvement of the choroid plexus in central nervous system inflammation
Creators Name:Millward, J.M. and Schnorr, J. and Taupitz, M. and Wagner, S. and Wuerfel, J.T. and Infante-Duarte, C.
Abstract:Neuroinflammation during multiple sclerosis involves immune cell infiltration and disruption of the BBB (blood-brain barrier). Both processes can be visualized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), in multiple sclerosis patients and in the animal model EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis). We previously showed that VSOPs (very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles) reveal CNS (central nervous system) lesions in EAE which are not detectable by conventional contrast agents in MRI. We hypothesized that VSOP may help detect early, subtle inflammatory events that would otherwise remain imperceptible. To investigate the capacity of VSOP to reveal early events in CNS inflammation, we induced EAE in SJL mice using encephalitogenic T-cells, and administered VSOP prior to onset of clinical symptoms. In parallel, we administered VSOP to mice at peak disease, and to unmanipulated controls. We examined the distribution of VSOP in the CNS by MRI and histology. Prior to disease onset, in asymptomatic mice, VSOP accumulated in the choroid plexus and in spinal cord meninges in the absence of overt inflammation. However, VSOP was undetectable in the CNS of non-immunized control mice. At peak disease, VSOP was broadly distributed; we observed particles in perivascular inflammatory lesions with apparently preserved glia limitans. Moreover, at peak disease, VSOP was prominent in the choroid plexus and was seen in elongated endothelial structures, co-localized with phagocytes, and diffusely disseminated in the parenchyma, suggesting multiple entry mechanisms of VSOP into the CNS. Thus, using VSOP we were able to discriminate between inflammatory events occurring in established EAE and, importantly, we identified CNS alterations that appear to precede immune cell infiltration and clinical onset.
Keywords:Choroid Plexus, Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Iron Oxide Nanoparticles, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Multiple Sclerosis, Animals, Mice
Source:ASN Neuro
Publisher:Portland Press
Page Range:e00110
Date:1 March 2013
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1042/AN20120081
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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