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cGMP signaling and branching of sensory axons in the spinal cord

Item Type:Review
Title:cGMP signaling and branching of sensory axons in the spinal cord
Creators Name:Ter-Avetisyan, G. and Troester, P. and Schmidt, H. and Rathjen, F.G.
Abstract:Axonal branching is essential for neurons to establish contacts to different targets. It therefore provides the physical basis for the integration and distribution of information within the nervous system. During embryonic and early postnatal development, several axonal branching modes may be distinguished that might be regulated by activities of the growth cone or by the axon shaft. The various forms of axonal branching are dependent on intrinsic components and are regulated by extrinsic factors that activate specific signaling systems. This article focuses on components implicated in cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling that regulate axon bifurcation - a specific form of branching - within the spinal cord in animal models. This cascade is composed of the ligand CNP, the guanylyl cyclase Npr2 and the cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent kinase I. In the absence of one of these components, axons of dorsal root ganglion neurons do not form T-shaped branches when entering the spinal cord, while collateral (interstitial) branching, another branching mode of the same type of the neuron, is not affected. It will be important to analyze human patients with mutations in the corresponding genes to get insights into the pathophysiological effects of impaired sensory axon branching in the spinal cord.
Keywords:Axonal Branching, cGKI, cGMP Signaling, CNP, DRG Neurons, Npr2, Spinal Cord, Animals, Mice, Rats
Source:Future Neurology
Publisher:Future Medicine
Page Range:639-651
Date:September 2012
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.2217/fnl.12.58

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