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Actin filament elasticity and retrograde flow shape the force-velocity relation of motile cells

Item Type:Article
Title:Actin filament elasticity and retrograde flow shape the force-velocity relation of motile cells
Creators Name:Zimmermann, J. and Brunner, C. and Enculescu, M. and Goegler, M. and Ehrlicher, A. and Kaes, J. and Falcke, M.
Abstract:Cells migrate through a crowded environment during processes such as metastasis or wound healing, and must generate and withstand substantial forces. The cellular motility responses to environmental forces are represented by their force-velocity relation, which has been measured for fish keratocytes but remains unexplained. Even pN opposing forces slow down lamellipodium motion by three orders of magnitude. At larger opposing forces, the retrograde flow of the actin network accelerates until it compensates for polymerization, and cell motion stalls. Subsequently, the lamellipodium adapts to the stalled state. We present a mechanism quantitatively explaining the cell's force-velocity relation and its changes upon application of drugs that hinder actin polymerization or actomyosin-based contractility. Elastic properties of filaments, close to the lamellipodium leading edge, and retrograde flow shape the force-velocity relation. To our knowledge, our results shed new light on how these migratory responses are regulated, and on the mechanics and structure of the lamellipodium.
Keywords:Actin Cytoskeleton, Atomic Force Microscopy, Azepines, Biological Models, Biomechanics, Cell Movement, Corneal Keratocytes, Cytochalasin D, Elasticity, Naphthalenes, Animals, Goldfish
Source:Biophysical Journal
Publisher:Cell Press
Page Range:287-295
Date:18 January 2012
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2011.12.023
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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