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Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome

Item Type:Article
Title:Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome
Creators Name:Arumugam, M. and Raes, J. and Pelletier, E. and Le Paslier, D. and Yamada, T. and Mende, D.R. and Fernandes, G.R. and Tap, J. and Bruls, T. and Batto, J.M. and Bertalan, M. and Borruel, N. and Casellas, F. and Fernandez, L. and Gautier, L. and Hansen, T. and Hattori, M. and Hayashi, T. and Kleerebezem, M. and Kurokawa, K. and Leclerc, M. and Levenez, F. and Manichanh, C. and Nielsen, H.B. and Nielsen, T. and Pons, N. and Poulain, J. and Qin, J. and Sicheritz-Ponten, T. and Tims, S. and Torrents, D. and Ugarte, E. and Zoetendal, E.G. and Wang, J. and Guarner, F. and Pedersen, O. and de Vos, W.M. and Brunak, S. and Dore, J. and Weissenbach, J. and Ehrlich, S.D. and Bork, P.
Abstract:Our knowledge of species and functional composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about variation across the world. By combining 22 newly sequenced faecal metagenomes of individuals from four countries with previously published data sets, here we identify three robust clusters (referred to as enterotypes hereafter) that are not nation or continent specific. We also confirmed the enterotypes in two published, larger cohorts, indicating that intestinal microbiota variation is generally stratified, not continuous. This indicates further the existence of a limited number of well-balanced host-microbial symbiotic states that might respond differently to diet and drug intake. The enterotypes are mostly driven by species composition, but abundant molecular functions are not necessarily provided by abundant species, highlighting the importance of a functional analysis to understand microbial communities. Although individual host properties such as body mass index, age, or gender cannot explain the observed enterotypes, data-driven marker genes or functional modules can be identified for each of these host properties. For example, twelve genes significantly correlate with age and three functional modules with the body mass index, hinting at a diagnostic potential of microbial markers.
Keywords:Bacteria, Bacterial Typing Techniques, Biodiversity, Biological Markers, Europe, Feces, Intestines, Metagenome, Metagenomics, Phylogeny
Source:Nature
ISSN:0028-0836
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group (U.K.)
Volume:473
Number:7346
Page Range:174-180
Date:12 May 2011
Additional Information:Erratum in: Nature 474(7353): 666; Erratum in: Nature 506(7489): 516.
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09944
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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