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Enriched environment and physical activity reduce microglia and influence the fate of NG2 cells in the amygdala of adult mice

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Item Type:Article
Title:Enriched environment and physical activity reduce microglia and influence the fate of NG2 cells in the amygdala of adult mice
Creators Name:Ehninger, D. and Wang, L.P. and Klempin, F. and Roemer, B. and Kettenmann, H. and Kempermann, G.
Abstract:Proliferative cells expressing proteoglycan neuron-glia 2 (NG2) are considered to represent parenchymal precursor cells in the adult brain and are thought to differentiate primarily into oligodendrocytes. We have studied cell genesis in the adult amygdala and found that, up to 1 year after the labeling of proliferating cells with bromodeoxyuridine, most proliferating NG2 cells remain NG2 cells, and only a few slowly differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes, as assessed by the expression of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase. We have detected no signs of neurogenesis but have confirmed the expression of "neuronal" markers such as Doublecortin in NG2 cells. Nestin-expressing NG2 cells in the amygdala show electrophysiological properties known for oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the corpus callosum. Application of the glutamate agonist kainate elicits a "complex" response consisting of a rapid and long-lasting blockade of the resting K(+) conductance, a transient cationic current, and a transient increase of an outwardly directed K(+) conductance, suggesting the responsiveness of NG2 cells to excitation. Proliferation of NG2 cells increases in response to behavioral stimuli of activity, voluntary wheel running, and environmental enrichment. In addition to reducing the number of newborn microglia, behavioral activity results in a decrease in S100beta-expressing newborn NG2 cells in the amygdala. Because S100beta expression in NG2 cells ceases with oligodendrocyte maturation, this finding suggests that NG2 cells in the amygdala undergo activity-dependent functional alterations, without resulting in a measurable increase in new mature oligodendrocytes over the time period covered by the present study. The adult amygdala thus shows signs of mixed activity-dependent plasticity: reduced numbers of microglia and, presumably, an altered fate of NG2 cells.
Keywords:Stem Cells, Exercise, Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cell, Plasticity, Enriched Environment, Microglia, Mouse (C57BL6/J), Animals, Mice
Source:Cell and Tissue Research
ISSN:0302-766X
Publisher:Springer (Germany)
Volume:345
Number:1
Page Range:69-86
Date:July 2011
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-011-1200-z
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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