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Diversity in structure and function of tethering complexes: Evidence for different mechanisms in vesicular transport regulation

Item Type:Review
Title:Diversity in structure and function of tethering complexes: Evidence for different mechanisms in vesicular transport regulation
Creators Name:Kuemmel, D. and Heinemann, U.
Abstract:The term 'tethering factor' has been coined for a heterogeneous group of proteins that all are required for protein trafficking prior to vesicle docking and SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. Two groups of tethering factors can be distinguished, long coiled-coil proteins and multi-subunit complexes. To date, eight such protein complexes have been identified in yeast, and they are required for different trafficking steps. Homologous complexes are found in all eukaryotic organisms, but conservation seems to be less strict than for other components of the trafficking machinery. In fact, for most proposed multi-subunit tethers their ability to actually bridge two membranes remains to be shown. Here we discuss recent progress in the structural and functional characterization of tethering complexes and present the emerging view that the different complexes are quite diverse in their structure and the molecular mechanisms underlying their function. TRAPP and the exocyst are the structurally best characterized tethering complexes. Their comparison fails to reveal any similarity on a struc nottural level. Furthermore, the interactions with regulatory Rab GTPases vary, with TRAPP acting as a nucleotide exchange factor and the exocyst being an effector. Considering these differences among the tethering complexes as well as between their yeast and mammalian orthologs which is apparent from recent studies, we suggest that tethering complexes do not mediate a strictly conserved process in vesicular transport but are diverse regulators acting after vesicle budding and prior to membrane fusion.
Keywords:Tethering, Vesicular Transport, TRAPP, Exocyst, Class C Vps, COG, Exo Fold, Bet3 Fold, Animals
Source:Current Protein & Peptide Science
ISSN:1389-2037
Publisher:Bentham (The Netherlands)
Volume:9
Number:2
Page Range:197-209
Date:April 2008
Official Publication:https://doi.org/10.2174/138920308783955252
PubMed:View item in PubMed

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